Positive reactions in the EliSpot demonstrate current active infections against:
Dr. Leo Joosten, Department of Medicine , Radboud University, Netherlands:
Q: What solutions that are currently being pursued do you believe hold the most promise for diagnosing Lyme disease at a high confidence level? Which tests currently available to the general public, other than the western blot test, do you believe provide a better degree of certainty?
A: “At the moment, there are cellular based tests on the market. LTT and EliSpot are a few of these tests. These tests give us information about the cellular immune response towards Borrelia antigens. It seems that these tests will be used in the future, apart from serological tests.”
Borrelia EliSpot (T-Cell-Spot / IGRA: Interferon-Gamma-Release Assay)
Borrelia EliSpot antigens:
- Borrelia burgdorferi Fully Antigen: Borrelia burgdorferi B31-reference strain (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto)
- Borrelia burgorferi Peptide-Mix: OspA from Borrelia b. sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii + OspC native + DbpA recombinant
- Borrelia burgdorferi LFA-1 (Lymphocyte Function Antigen 1): Own body protein + Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (shared epitope). Often associated with autoimmune diseases: collagenosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, vasculitis (ANA, CCP-antibodies, ANCA)
Explanation: Native = cultured antigens/ Recombinant: genetic technology produced
Reflecting the current T-cellular activity of Lyme disease:
- Indication for a currently active Borrelia burgdorferi infection in cases of furthermore positive EliSpot after the end of therapies
- T-Cell-Spot/IGRA has been approved by the FDA in May 2011 for M. tuberculosis:
"… A positive result suggests that an infection is likely, a negative result suggests that an infection is unlikely…” “…Results can be available within 24 hours…”
EliSpot: New T-Cell Test a “Game Changer” for Lyme disease:
… The sensitivity of EliSpot is estimated at 84%, and the specificity is 94%...
… EliSpot assays provide robust, highly reproducible data…
… EliSpot can be retested for the acquisition of additional information in follow-up assays…
… the two assays systems (EliSpot + CD57-cell count) compliment each other in the quest to understand T cell-mediated immunity in vivo….
Lehman PV et al.: Unique Strengths of EliSpot for T Cell Diagnostics in: Kalyuzhny AE. Handbook of EliSpot: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 792. 2nd Ed: Springer; 2012: 3-23